Within the domain of firefighting, where bravery and tenacity unite to combat the devastating power of flames, an unforeseen opponent has surfaced. This adversary has cast a shadow over the commendable endeavors of those who safeguard our communities.

Once considered a dependable ally in the battle against infernos, firefighting foam has now faced rigorous examination, exposing a challenging reality. This revelation has triggered a surge of apprehension and legal measures in response. A different kind of hazard lingers as firefighters extinguish the flames of danger. One that imperils the very individuals who rush toward the blaze.

In this exploration, we delve into the disturbing reality of how firefighting foam has become a source of health risks for those on the frontlines.

Understanding Firefighting Foam and its Application

Firefighting foam, a specialized concoction designed to combat fires more effectively, stands as a vital tool in the arsenal of firefighters. When applied strategically, its unique properties can swiftly suppress flames, prevent re-ignition, and minimize property damage. It is imperative to first grasp its composition, applications, and historical significance to comprehend the potential risks it poses.

The Composition and Types of Firefighting Foam

Firefighting foam is a complex mixture of water, foam concentrate, and air. These components interact to create a foam blanket that extinguishes fires through multiple mechanisms, including cooling, separating oxygen, and suppressing flammable vapors. Different types of foam are tailored to combat specific fire hazards, such as flammable liquids, solid materials, or even hazardous chemical spills.

  • Class A foam: Designed to combat fires involving solid materials, such as wood or paper.
  • Class B foam: Engineered to suppress flammable liquid fires, often used for fuel spills or industrial incidents. According to a study published in the Springer Journal, PFAS, PFOA, and PFOS are the main components of Class B foams. These are considered toxicants and are suspected carcinogens.
  • Class C foam: Geared towards electrical fires, preventing electric conductivity and extinguishing flames.

Applications and Deployment

Firefighting foam finds its application across a spectrum of scenarios, each demanding a unique approach. Its versatility allows firefighters to effectively tackle a wide range of fire types:

  • Structural fires: In buildings and residential areas, foam can blanket flames and prevent re-ignition, minimizing structural damage.
  • Vehicle fires: Foam is used to rapidly smother fuel-fed fires in automobiles, aircraft, and other transport vehicles.
  • Industrial incidents: Foam is crucial in dealing with chemical spills, ensuring fire suppression, and hazardous material containment.

The Emergence of Health Concerns

Firefighting foam has historically been praised for its fire-suppressing abilities. However, emerging health concerns within the firefighting community have raised doubts about its safety.

As research intensified, a troubling pattern emerged, a potential correlation between firefighting foam exposure and health issues among firefighters. Studies revealed elevated levels of PFAS compounds in firefighters’ blood, signaling a potential pathway for exposure.

Firefighters exposed to PFAS-laden foam during training exercises or fire incidents reported increased health problems. While a study found PFAS in the blood of 97% of Americans, the levels in firefighters’ blood were very high.

This resulted in numerous health concerns. According to TorHoerman Law, some health problems associated with PFAS-based Aqueous Firefighting Foam (AFFF) include respiratory issues, cancers, and hormonal disruptions. These severe health conditions can significantly impact a person’s quality of life.

Hence, many firefighters, military personnel, or other individuals who faced any such issues due to exposure to PFAS filed firefighting foam lawsuits. The plaintiffs allege that the firefighting foam manufacturer failed to spread awareness about these potential health issues. If you or a loved one faced any such problem, you can also file a firefighting foam lawsuit.

Unraveling the Health Risks

The emergence of health concerns related to firefighting foam exposure has prompted intensive research and investigation into the potential risks firefighters face.

The Hidden Dangers of PFAS Exposure

The investigation into health risks has highlighted the alarming effects of exposure to per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), the compounds found in firefighting foam. These persistent chemicals have been linked to a range of health issues, including:

  • Cancer: Studies have shown a potential association between PFAS exposure and certain types of cancer, including testicular, kidney, and thyroid cancers. Over time, PFAS compound accumulation in the body has raised concerns about long-term health effects. A study of patients being treated for melanoma revealed the presence of PFAS chemicals in 70.5% of exposed patients.
  • Respiratory disorders: Firefighters exposed to PFAS-laden foam have reported an increased incidence of respiratory issues, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The inhalation of PFAS-laden particles during firefighting operations and training exercises may contribute to these conditions.
  • Hormonal disruptions: PFAS exposure has been linked to disturbances in hormone levels, potentially leading to reproductive and developmental challenges. These disruptions can have far-reaching effects on firefighters’ overall health and well-being.

Legal Battles and Accountability

The disclosure of health risks associated with exposure to firefighting foam has set off a legal environment marked by intricate challenges. Firefighters and advocacy groups are actively pursuing accountability for potential harm, adding layers of complexity to the legal proceedings.

In the wake of mounting evidence connecting firefighting foam exposure to adverse health effects, lawsuits have emerged against foam manufacturers and fire departments. These legal actions underscore the gravity of the issue and the determination of those affected to seek compensation for their suffering.

The number of firefighting foam lawsuits is constantly increasing over the months. According to ConsumerNotice, 5,227 pending AFFF lawsuits were filed across the U.S. by July 2023. The numbers continue to grow as more and more people are filing cases to seek their rightful compensation for the problems they face.

Regulatory Response and Industry Changes

The emergence of health concerns and legal battles surrounding firefighting foam has triggered a cascade of responses from regulatory bodies and the firefighting industry.

The growing awareness of health risks linked to exposure to firefighting foam has led to increased attention from regulatory agencies. Specifically, these agencies have heightened their examination of the chemicals utilized in the production of foam. This has prompted reevaluating guidelines governing the use and disposal of foam products, particularly those containing PFAS compounds.

Regulators have taken steps to restrict the use of PFAS compounds in firefighting foam and other applications. Some jurisdictions have implemented bans or limitations on foam containing certain levels of PFAS. In contrast, others have introduced measures to phase out the use of PFAS-laden foam in training exercises and non-emergency scenarios.

The firefighting industry has responded to health concerns by actively seeking and developing safer alternatives to traditional foam. Research and innovation efforts are focused on formulating foams with reduced or eliminated PFAS content while maintaining critical fire-suppression properties.


The story of firefighting foam and its impact on the health of firefighters is one of complexity, revelation, and resilience. Once a reliable tool in the fight against fires, it has been revealed as a concealed danger, sparking a series of reactions and initiatives. These efforts underscore the steadfast dedication to safeguarding those who are dedicated to our protection.

The journey through the realms of firefighting foam lawsuits, health risks, regulatory responses, and protective measures has underscored the multifaceted nature of the challenge. Firefighters, advocacy groups, manufacturers, regulatory bodies, and communities have collaborated to address this issue directly. They are united by a common objective: safeguarding the health and well-being of those who bravely face danger in their line of duty.